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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials.

After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI and positron emission tomography PET , which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range.

The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the indicate that the research in this area should be intensified.

An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music.

Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields. Basic discussions of music center about questions such as: What actually is music?

How can we understand music? What is the effect of music on human beings? One can ask the question how to recognize and describe the concretely beautiful in music. Efforts have been undertaken to answer this question Eggebrecht, , e. In modern and contemporary music, however, formal attempts of understanding are useless because form and self-containedness are missing Zender, Thus, in atonality and in the emancipation of noise, a tonal center is absent, by simultaneous appearance of different rhythmic sequences the regular meter is demolished, and in aleatory music the linear order of musical events is left open.

Exactly for this reason they are expressed in musical sound, otherwise they are not communicable Maurer, Some historical comments on music-evoked emotions are compiled in section Historical Comments on the Impact of Music on People of this study. The advent of brain-imaging technology with high spatial resolution see principles section Experimental Procedures for Tomographic Imaging of Emotion in the Brain gave new impact to interdisciplinary experimental research in the field of music-evoked emotions from the physiological and molecular point of view. With the broader availability of magnetic resonance imaging MRI, first demonstrated in ; Lauterbur, and positron emission tomography PET, first demonstrated ; Ter-Pogossian, since about two decades for studying both music listeners and performing musicians, a wealth of music-evoked brain activation data has been accomplished which is discussed in section Experimental of Functional tomographic Brain Imaging fMRI, PET together with psychoendocrinological and molecular markers.

Due to the refinement of the more phenomenological measuring techniques, such as electroencephalography EEG and magnetoencephalography [MEG, section Electro- and Magnetoencephalography EEG, MEG ], skin conductance response and finger temperature measurements section Skin Conductance Response SCR and Finger Temperature as well as goose bump development section Goose Bumps—Piloerection , emotions can be measured with high temporal resolution.

Genetic studies of musical heredity are reported in section Is There a Biological Background for the Attractiveness of Music? Some therapeutic issues of music are discussed in section Musical Therapy for Psychiatric or Neurologic Impairments and Deficiencies in Music Perception prior to the remarks concluding this study with an outlook. A brief outline of the psychological discussion of music-evoked emotion is given in the online Supplementary Material section.

This concept of a numeral order of music and its effect on man was transferred to the Middle Ages, e. The Greek physician Asklepiades BC was said to have used music as a remedy for mental illness where the application of the Phrygian mode was considered to be particularly adequate for brightening up depressive patients.

Johannes Tinctoris listed 20 effects of music, such as, e. In addition, music was supposed to delay aging processes. Agrippa von Nettesheim was convinced that music can maintain physical health and emboss a moral behavior. He discusses in his treatise De occulta philosophia Agrippa von Nettesheim, the powerful and prodigious effects of music. From his list of 20 different musical effects—adapted to the sequence of effects established by Johannes Tinctoris Schipperges, a brief selection should be presented here:. These effects could be translated into nowadays notions as religiosity 1 , depression 7 , joy 13 , therapy 14 , and sexuality This exclusively depends on the thoughts which are aroused in our memory.

In the medical encyclopedia of Bartolomeo Castelli of it is stated that music is efficient for both the curing of diseases and for maintaining health. A famous historical example for a positive impact of music on mental disorders is the Spanish King Philipp V who—due to his severe depressions—stopped ing official documents and got up from his bed only briefly and only by night.

With his singing, Farinelli succeeded in agitating the king to partial fulfillment of his governmental duties and an occasional appearance in the governmental council. The widely known Goldberg Variationen composed by J. Bach in may be considered, as reported by Bach biographer J.

Forkel , as therapeutic music. Goldberg…which should be of such gentle and happy character that he be somewhat cheered in his sleepless nights…. In the medicine professor E. The physician and composer F. Complete impotence is not curable by music. The French psychiatrist J. Esquirol , see Charland, started to perform numerous experiments with the application of music to single patients or to groups.

He, however, stated that the effect of music was transient and disappeared when the music ended. With the rise of the experimental techniques of natural sciences in the medicine of the late nineteenth century, the views, patterns, and notions as determined by musical harmony began to take a backseat. It should be mentioned here that skepticism with regard to the effects of music arose in early times. In the third century Quintus Serenus declared the banishing of fever by means of vocals as pure superstition. Sound waves are detected by the ear and converted into neural als which are sent to the brain.

Here, making use of the cochlear hair cells organ of Corti , the sound waves are converted into neural als which are passed to the brain via the auditory nerve Zenner, For each frequency, there is a region of maximum stimulation, or resonance region, on the basilar membrane. The spatial position x along the basilar membrane of the responding hair cells and the associated neurons determine the primary sensation of the pitch. A change in frequency of a pure tone causes a shift of the position of the activated region.

This shift is then interpreted as a change in pitch see Roederer, effect and laser studies allowed for a precise measurement of the movement of the basilar membrane see Roederer, Anatomy of the ear. Reprinted with permission from William E. B Components of the inner ear. C Confocal micrographs of rat auditory hair cells. The protein myosin XVa is localized to the stereocilia tips Rzadzinska et al. Reprinted with permission from Rzadzinska et al. The cochlear hair cells assist in relaying sound to the brain. The stereocilia of the hair cell, which is sitting on the basilar membrane, are the primary structures used in sound transduction.

At loudest sound the bending amplitude of the stereocilia is about their diameter of nm a nanometer nm is a millionth of a mm and at auditory threshold the movement is about 1 nm or, in the order of the diameter of small molecules Fettiplace and Hackney, , i. This causes neurotransmitter release at the basal end of the hair cell, eliciting an action potential in the dendrites of the auditory nerve Gray, The action speed of the hair cells is incredibly high to satisfy the amazing demands for speed in the auditory system.

al detection and amplification must be preferentially handled by processes occurring within one hair cell. Emotional relevance of music is ascribed, e. Four musical parameters for the activation of emotions appear to be particularly prominent in the literature Kreutz et al. Musical tempo could influence cardiovascular dynamics. The category of consonance could be associated with activation in the paralimbic and cortical brain areas Blood and Zatorre, whereas dissonances containing partials with non-integer irrational frequency ratios may give rise to a sensation of roughness.

The loudness or the physical sound pressure seems to be of relevance to psychoneuroendocrinological responses to music. Thus, crescendo le to specific modulation of cardiovascular activity see Kreutz et al. Musical sounds are often structured in time, space, and intensity. Several structural factors in music give rise to musical tension: consonance or dissonance, loudness, pitch, and timber can modulate tension.

Sensory consonance and dissonance are already represented in the brainstem Tramo et al. The stability of a musical structure also contributes to tension, such as a stable beat or its perturbation for example, by an accelerando or a ritardando, syncopations, off-beat phrasings, etc. Koelsch, The stability of a tonal structure in tonal music also contributes to tension. Moving away from the tonal center creates tension and returning to it evokes relaxation. Additionally, the extent of a structural context contributes to tension. The red bars indicate that after a dominant the next chord is most likely to be a tonic.

The uncertainty of the predictions for the next chord and thus the entropy of the probability distribution for the next chord is low during the dominant, intermediate during the tonic, and relatively high during the submediant. Progressive tones and harmonies thus create an entropic flux that gives rise to constantly changing un certainties of predictions.

The increasing complexity of regulations, and thus the increase of entropic flux, requires an increasing amount of knowledge about the musical regularities to make precise predictions about upcoming events. Tensions emerge from the suspense about whether a prediction proves true Koelsch, Tensions and release may be important for a religious chorale as metaphors for sin and redemption Koelsch, This graph shows the context-dependent bigram probabilities for the corpus of Bach chorales. Blue bars show probabilities of chord functions following the tonic I , green bars following the submediant vi , and red bars following a dominant V.

The probability for, e. Tension can be further modulated by a structural breach. The emotional effects of the violations of predictions, which can be treated in analogy to the free energy of a system Friston and Friston, includes surprise. Irregular unexpected chord functions, with rating of felt tensions, evoke skin conductance responses, activity changes in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex while listening to a piece of classical piano music see Koelsch, Such anticipation of relaxation might envolve dopaminergic activity in the dorsal striatum Koelsch, Another effect arising from music is emotional contagion.

Interestingly, there seems to be an acoustic similarity between expression of emotion in Western music and affective prosody see Koelsch, Magnetic resonance imaging see Reiser et al. Studies on the molecular level have been reported recently Xue et al. A Principles of magnetic resonance tomography Birbaumer and Schmidt, The relaxation times see B are measured. B Nuclear magnetic relaxation times T1 top and T2 bottom of hydrogen nuclei for various biological materials Schnier and Mehlhorn, C Spatial encoding of the local magnetic resonance information Birbaumer and Schmidt, Due to a slicing left and finally a three-dimensional structuring right by means of gradient fields, the resonance frequency and the relaxation times can be ased to a particular pixel.

A necessary condition for image generation is the exact information about the magnetic resonance al's spatial origin. This spatial information is generated by additional site-dependent magnetic fields, called magnetic field gradients, along the three spatial axes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI is based on the effect that in the case of activation of neurons by, e. This effect which enables active brain areas to be imaged is called BOLD blood oxygen level dependent effect. By an increase of the magnetic field strength, the al-to-noise ratio and thereby the spatial resolution can be enhanced.

PET imaging is based on the annihilation of positrons with electrons of the body. The positron-electron annihilation process gives rise to two high-energy 0. A Chemical formulae of two compounds doped with the positron emitters 18 F left. B Principles of positron emission tomography PET. Left: A positron is emitted from a radioactive nucleus and annihilated with electrons of the tissue emitting two colinear annihilation photons which are monitored by radiation detectors and checked for coincidence.

Right: Multi-detector PET scanner taking images slices of the concentration of positron emitting isotopes in the brain and thereby measuring the emotional activity of brain sections Birbaumer and Schmidt, Music is a universal feature of human societies, partly owing to its power to evoke strong emotions and influence moods. Understanding of neural correlates of music-evoked emotions has been invaluable for the understanding of human emotions Koelsch, The nucleus accumbens plays an important role in the mesolimbic system generating pleasure, laughter, reward but also fear, aggression, impulsivity, and addiction.

The mesolimbic system is additionally intensely involved in emotional learning processes. A Neural correlates of music-evoked emotions. A meta-analysis of brain-imaging studies that shows neural correlates of music-evoked emotions. A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis of a lager set of the analyses of earlier data.

The meta -analysis indicates clusters of activities derived from numerous studies for references see Koelsch, in the amygdala SF, LB , the hippocampal formation a , the left caudate nucleus with a maximum in the nucleus accumbens NAc, b , pre-supplementary motor area SMA , rostral cingulated zone RCZ , orbifrontal cortex OFC , and mediodorsal thalamus MD, c , as well as in auditory regions Heschls gyrus HG and anterior superior temporal gyrus aSTG, d. Additional limbic and paralimbic brain areas may contribute to music-evoked emotions. For details see Koelsch In the following, the role of the amygdala, the nucleus accumbens and the hippocampus in music-evoked emotion is briefly discussed in more detail.

The amygdala is central in the emotion network and can regulate and modulate this network.

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